2000 The U. S. Supreme Court, upholding an earlier decision, in Food and Drug Administration v. Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp. et al., rules 5-4 that the F.D.A. does not have the authority to regulate tobacco as a drug. Within weeks of this ruling, the F.D.A. revokes its final rule, issued in 1996, that restricts the sale and distribution of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products to children and adolescents.
2001 Fast Food Nation by Eric Schlosser, an indictment of the fast food and meat-packing industries, is published.
December 2003 President George W. Bush signs the Medicare Modernization Act, which expands Medicare to include prescription drug coverage, called Part D.
2004 The International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium publishes its scientific description of the finished human genome sequence.
2006 Two vaccines are introduced to protect against H.P.V. viruses that can cause cervical cancer and genital warts. H.P.V. is the most common sexually transmitted virus in the United States.
June 22, 2009 President Barack Obama signs the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which gives the F.D.A. the power to regulate nicotine and ban tobacco advertising aimed at children.
March 23, 2010 President Barack Obama signs the Affordable Health Care for America Act, enabling millions of Americans to obtain health insurance.