MILESTONES

1800 1900 2000

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MILESTONES 1800s

January 21, 1801 The Philadelphia Water Works opens, making Philadelphia the first major city in the U.S. to provide clean drinking water citywide.

March 29, 1806 Thomas Jefferson signs legislation committing the federal government to build the Cumberland (later National) Road west from Cumberland, MD.

August 17, 1807 Robert Fulton takes the steamboat Clermont up the Hudson River from New York to Albany; reliable upriver steam travel revolutionizes intercity trade and transportation.

1818 Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley writes "Frankenstein," about a creature produced by scientific activity in a laboratory.

October 26, 1825 The Erie Canal connects the port of New York to the Great Lakes via the Hudson River. By 1840, New York moved more freight than the ports of Boston, Baltimore and New Orleans combined.

May 24, 1830 America's first railroad, the Baltimore & Ohio, travels 13 miles from Baltimore to Ellicott City, Maryland; the line extends to Wheeling, West Virginia, in 1853.

July 1832 Cholera strikes New York and cities along the eastern seaboard; New York suffers 3,513 deaths and begins planning to bring clean water to the city from an upstate source.

Pg1 Photo 1Original crew of the U.S.S Monitor playing games on deck while on the James River (Virginia), 1862.
Pg1 Photo 2William Saunders, an American horticulturalist working for the U.S. Patent Office, arranged for the importation of seedless or navel orange trees from Bahia, Brazil, in the late 1860s. Here mammoth oranges are shipped on the Southern Pacific Railroad, 1909.
Pg1 Photo 3Linus Pauling, two-time Nobel Prize winner, works with a vacuum pump in his lab at Oregon State University.

February 25, 1836 Samuel Colt patents the revolver, a handgun "that featured a rotating cylinder with multiple chambers for bullets."

January 11, 1838 Samuel F.B. Morse uses electric signals to shift an electromagnet in a patterned print across paper, known as Morse code.

1839 Charles Goodyear invents vulcanized rubber, which maintains its shape despite exposure to pressure and heat. Goodyear receives his patent in 1844.

October 14, 1842 The Croton Aqueduct provides New York with its first clean supply of water needed to combat disease, fight fires, and meet the demands of a rapidly growing city.

May 24, 1844 Samuel F.B. Morse builds the first telegraph line, extending from Baltimore to Washington, DC.

1845 Innovations by Elias Howe and Isaac Singer lead to the modern, practical sewing machine.

October 16, 1846 The first public demonstration of ether as anesthesia takes place during surgery performed by Dr. William T.G. Morton at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston.

 

Pg1 Photo 4The Aerodyne, designed by Alexander Lippisch, 1950.
Pg1 Photo 5Dr. Patricia Bath invented a new device and technique for cataract surgery known as "laserphaco" that has helped many blind people to see.
Pg1 Photo 6Patent issued to Bell Labs for the transistor, 1950.

April 28, 1852 Boston establishes the first electric-powered fire alarm system with call boxes to indicate the location of the fire.

November 11, 1856 English metallurgist Henry Bessemer receives a U.S. patent for a process that converts pig iron to steel, establishing a much lower cost method for producing steel in large quantities.

March 23, 1857 The first safety elevator for passengers in America, designed by Elisha Otis, is installed at 488 Broadway in New York in E.V. Haughwout's porcelain and glassware shop.

November 30, 1858 John L. Mason patents the Mason jar, enabling America to preserve perishable goods.

1861 Richard Gatling invents the Gatling gun, forerunner of the revolving machine gun, under the mistaken impression that it would reduce battlefield casualties by reducing the number of soldiers needed. He receives a patent on May 9, 1865.

 

Pg1 Photo 7Tetrahedral kite designed by Alexander Graham Bell, c. 1910.
Pg1 Photo 8Carl Rakeman's painting of the first American macadam road, n. d.
Pg1 Photo 9Broadway Elevated Railroad, New York, City, 1866.

October 24, 1861 High-speed telegraph communication begins between the Pacific and Atlantic coasts as the Western Union Company completes its telegraph line between St. Joseph, MO, and Sacramento, CA.

July 27, 1866 The Transatlantic cable opens between Newfoundland and Valentia, Ireland, forever changing communication between American and Europe. Communication that once took two to three weeks now takes minutes.

June 23, 1868 Christopher Latham Sholes and his associates patent the first practical typewriter; five years later he introduces the QWERTY arrangement of keys to avoid jamming.

September 8, 1868 Bessemer Steel's first "blow" is made at the Cleveland Rolling Mills, inaugurating an American industrial revolution; the cities of Cleveland, Pittsburgh, Detroit and Chicago would soon anchor the new industrial heartland of the nation.

Pg1 Photo 10Howard Coffin with steam car he built while a student at the University of Michigan, 1899.
Pg1 Photo 11Edison storage battery assembly department, New Jersey, 1915.
Pg1 Photo 12Stone's Marvelous Mental Calculator, 1880.

 

May 10, 1869 The Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads forge link at Promontory Point, UT, opening train travel between the eastern U.S. and California.

November 24, 1874 Joseph Glidden introduces barbed wire fencing, enabling herds to remain on private ranches.

March 10, 1876 Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone, signaling the decline of the telegraph industry.

1879 Constantine Fahlberg and Ira Remsen of Johns Hopkins University discover saccharine, the first synthetic sweetening agent.

January 27, 1880 Thomas Edison receives a patent for the electric light bulb; the first successful test had occurred on October 22, 1879.

December 20, 1880 New York's Broadway receives its first electric lights between 14th and 34th streets. The stretch between 23rd and 34th streets becomes known as The Great White Way for its brightly illuminated advertisements.

 

Pg1 Photo 13The meeting of the rails at Promontory Point, UT, on May 10, 1869.
Pp2 14Edison battery-operated truck used by the Metropolitan Opera Company of New York.
Pg2 15The inventors of the transistor at Bell Labs, William Shockley (seated), John Bardeen and Walter Brattain, 1947.

September 4, 1882 Thomas Edison's Pearl Street Station in New York begins the first successful commercial production of electricity in America, distributing direct current to 203 customers in lower Manhattan within four months. The New York Times building is lit up on this first night.

1883 American inventor Charles Fritts creates the first solar cell.

March 20, 1883 Jan Ernst Matzeliger invents a shoe and boot-lasting machine that increases shoemaking speed by 900%.

May 24, 1883 The Brooklyn Bridge opens, connecting the nation's largest and third largest cities, New York and Brooklyn. Its towers were the tallest structures in America.

1885 William Seward Burroughs creates a "calculating machine."

1884-1885 America's first skyscraper, Chicago's 10-story Home Life Insurance Building, utilizes a lightweight fireproof steel structure made possible by the Bessemer process of steel manufacturing.

March 20, 1886 William Stanley demonstrates the first practical use of alternating current electrification, distributing electrical illumination in Great Barrington, MA.

1888 Nikola Tesla develops the first motor for translating alternating current (AC) to mechanical energy.

February 2, 1888 The nation's first electric streetcar system opens in Richmond, VA. Frank Sprague and the Richmond Union Passenger Railway Company operate 10 streetcars in its nascent network.

September 4, 1888 George Eastman receives a patent and begins marketing his first Kodak camera.

1889 Boston's West End Street Railway opens the first large scale rapid transit system operating on electric power.

March 20, 1890 University of Wisconsin professor Stephen Babcock invents the butterfat tester, giving birth to the Wisconsin cheese industry.

July 10, 1893 Dr. Daniel Hale Williams performs one of the first successful open-heart surgeries, at Provident Hospital in Chicago.

1895 H.G. Wells writes "The Time Machine," about the wonders of time travel in a spaceship.

January 8, 1896 William Roentgen discovers x-rays; the first clinical x-ray is taken at the Dartmouth University Medical School.

MILESTONES 1900s

January 2, 1900 The direction of the Chicago River is reversed so that it flows into the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, thereby cleansing the city’s Lake Michigan drinking water.

March 20, 1900 Nikola Tesla is granted a U.S. patent for a “system of transmitting electrical energy” (the radio patent) and another patent for “an electrical transmitter.”

July 17, 1902 Willis Carrier designs an air-conditioning system for a Brooklyn printing plant.

1903 The first steam turbine generator, pioneered by Charles Curtis, is put into operation at the Newport Electric Corporation in Rhode Island.

December 17, 1903 Orville and Wilbur Wright conduct the first motor-powered flight at Kitty Hawk, NC.

Pg2 photo 7Inauguration of air mail delivery by U.S. Post Office, 1918.
Pic 7John von Neumann and J. Robert Oppenheimer at the Institute of Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ, 1952.
Pic 8Mirror fusion test facility magnet at Lawrence Livermore National Library, 1981.

1904 Benjamin Holt, a California manufacturer of agricultural equipment, develops the first successful crawler tractor, equipped with a pair of tracks rather than wheels. Dubbed the ‘caterpillar’ tread, the tracks help keep heavy tractors from sinking in soft soil and are an inspiration for the first military tanks.

1905 Jay Brownlee Davidson designs the first professional agricultural engineering curriculum at Iowa State College. Courses include agricultural machines, agricultural power sources, farm building design, rural road construction and field drainage.

September 26, 1905 Albert Einstein publishes the special theory of relativity.

December 24, 1906 Reginald Fessenden conducts the first wireless radio broadcast of entertainment and music in Brant Rock, MA.

September 26, 1908 Jersey City, NJ, becomes the first city in the U.S. to begin chlorination of its water supply. Death rates from waterborne diseases, typhoid in particular, begin to plummet.

July 13, 1907 Belgian scientist Leo Baekeland files a U.S. patent for Bakelite, the first completely man-made plastic material, which marked the birth of the plastics industry.

1910 Thomas Hunt Morgan’s experiments with fruit flies show that heredity was in part determined by genes carried by chromosomes.

1910 Gulf Oil, Texas Refining and Sun Oil introduce asphalt manufactured from byproducts of the oil-refining process. Suitable for road paving, it is less expensive than natural asphalt mined in and imported from Venezuela.

Pg2 photo 4Edison battery-operated truck used by the Metropolitan Opera Company of New York.
Pic 10Telstar, the first telecommunications satellite, developed at Bell Labs, 1962.
Pic 9Hampton Institute (Virginia) class in mathematical geography studying earth’s rotation around the sun, 1899.

August 19, 1912 Garrett Morgan files a patent for his “breathing device” to be used by the Cleveland Fire Department. His invention is later incorporated into the gas masks used by the U.S. military in World War I.

1913 The University of Kansas School of Medicine discovers that corn oil is good for cooking.

November 5, 1913 The Los Angeles-Owens River Aqueduct opens, bringing water by gravity to the Los Angeles basin from the eastern Sierra Nevada mountains, more than 230 miles to the north.

December 1, 1913 Ford introduces the moving assembly line for the mass production of autos in Highland Park, MI, a concept borrowed from the meat-packing industry. Workers perform a single task rather than master whole portions of automobile assembly.

November 14, 1914 Dodge introduces the first car body made entirely of steel, fabricated by the Budd Company of Philadelphia.

January 25, 1915 Alexander Graham Bell makes the first transcontinental telephone call to Thomas Watson – from New York to San Francisco.

1916 Clarence Birdseye begins experiments in quick-freezing. Birdseye develops a flash-freezing system that moves food products through a refrigerating system on conveyor belts. This causes the food to be frozen very fast, minimizing ice crystals.

Pg3 pic 1Engineering students examine aircraft engine at Michigan State University, c.1955.
Pg3 pic 2Mastodon Corn made possible with Maule seeds.
Pg3 pic 3Agricultural explorer Frank N. Meyer in Chinese Turkestan on a mission to bring back plants of economic value; the gingko biloba, kaki (Chinese persimmon) and the Meyer lemon, (a hybrid between a lemon and a mandarin or orange) c.1910.

April 15, 1917 Wisconsin is the first state to adopt a numbering system as the network of roads increases. The idea gradually spreads across the country.

1917 American Gas & Electric, an investor-owned utility, establishes the first long-distance high-voltage transmission line. The line originates from the first major steam plant to be built at the mouth of a coal mine, virtually eliminating fuel transportation costs.

November 2, 1920 Pittsburgh’s Westinghouse-owned KDKA, the first commercial radio station in the United States, broadcasts election results. By 1922, three million Americans own radios.

July 1, 1925 Cleveland opens the first municipal airport in the U.S. in continuous operation; 100,000 visitors celebrate the occasion.

November 13, 1927 Completion of the Holland Tunnel beneath the Hudson River links New York City and Jersey City, NJ. It is named for engineer Clifford Holland, who solved the problem of venting the build-up of deadly car exhaust by installing 84 electric fans, each 80 feet in diameter

January 7, 1927 Philo Farnsworth files a patent for the first electronic television set.

May 21, 1927 Charles Lindbergh completes the first nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean, traveling 3,600 miles from to New York to Paris.

August 19, 1927 “The Jazz Singer” is the first featured-length motion picture to have synchronized sound.

February 22, 1928 Charles Adler, Jr., invents the first modern electric traffic signal, which is installed at a Baltimore intersection.

Pg3 pic 4Steam-powered elevated railway in lower Manhattan on great curve at Coenties Slip, 1895.
Pg3 pic 5East Texas farmer rolling up old barbed wire near Harleton, TX, 1939.
Pg3 pic 6Biologists at the University of North Dakota, 1960s.

1929 Frigidaire markets the first room cooler, designed to be located outside the house, or in the basement.

March 15, 1929 Working at the Carnegie Observatories in California, astronomer Edwin Hubble publishes a scientific paper claiming that distant galaxies were moving away from each other at a rate constant to the distance between them.

1932 The U.S. Public Health Service, working with the Tuskegee Institute, begins a study to record the natural history of syphilis in hopes of justifying treatment programs for African-Americans. The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male is conducted without the patients’ informed consent. Although penicillin becomes widely available for use against syphilis in 1947, patients never receive it. Originally projected to last six months, the experiments continue until 1972.

December 26, 1933 Edwin H. Armstrong patents frequency modulation, or wide-band FM, radio.

May 18, 1933 Congress passes legislation establishing the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), a federal corporation providing electrification to homes and businesses in the Tennessee Valley.

February 28, 1935 DuPont chemist Gerard Berchet of the Walter Carothers research group invents nylon, intending it to replace silk in stockings.

May 11, 1935 President Roosevelt signs an executive order establishing the Rural Electrification Administration (REA). The REA provided loans and other assistance so that rural cooperatives could build and run their own electrical distribution systems.

Pg3 pic 7University of Arkansas graduate student, Hong Wen, transferring a nanomaterial sample from a molecular beam epitaxy machine to a scanning tunneling microscope, c. 2005.
Pg3 pic 8Packeting floor of the Seed Distribution Bureau, Washington, DC., 1905.
Pg3 pic 9Students with giant slide rule at Michigan State University, 1960.

November 12, 1936 Englishman Alan Turing and American Alonzo Church introduce an algorithm that describes what information can be computed and provided a model for computing.

May 27, 1937 The Golden Gate Bridge opens, connecting San Francisco with Marin County.

1937 The paving of Route 66 linking Chicago and Santa Monica, CA, is complete. Stretching across eight states and three time zones, the 2,448-miilelong road is the country’s main thoroughfare, bringing farm workers from the Midwest to California and contributing to California’s post-World War II population growth.

1938 A Window air conditioner using Freon is marketed by Philco-York as the “Cool-Wave.” The Philco air conditioner plugs into an electrical outlet.

October 22, 1938 Physicist Chester Carlson invents xerography.

August 2, 1939 Albert Einstein and Leo Szilard write a letter to President Roosevelt explaining the need to build a nuclear bomb to counter Nazi Germany’s effort.

October 1939 John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry at Iowa State College design the first electronic computer, which incorporates binary arithmetic and electronic switching.

1940 Oldsmobile introduces the first mass-produced fully automatic transmission, named Hydra-Matic, in its cars.

October 1, 1940 The Pennsylvania Turnpike opens as the country’s first roadway with no cross streets, no railroad crossings and no traffic lights. Built on an abandoned railroad right of way, it includes 7 miles of tunnels through the mountains, 11 interchanges, 300 bridges and culverts, and 10 service plazas.

Pg3 pic 9
Pg3 pic 10Woman living at Casa Grande Valley Farms, Pinal County, AZ removing the cover from her electric washing machine, 1941.
Pg4 pic 1New York City youngsters in the Federal Art Project learn metal craft, c. 1937.

December 30, 1940 The Arroyo Seco Parkway (today known as the Pasadena Freeway) opens, connecting Pasadena and Los Angeles. This first freeway in southern California begins a wave of highway construction that transforms urban transportation in America.

August 13, 1942 The Manhattan Engineering District is founded with the mission to design and build a nuclear bomb.

November 20, 1942 The Alaska Canada Military Highway (the Alcan) is completed, linking Dawson Creek, British Columbia and Delta Junction, Alaska. Built by African American and white soldiers of the Army Corps of Engineers, the Alcan has been called “the road to civil rights.”

December 2, 1942 The first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction occurs at the University of Chicago in an experiment led by physicist Enrico Fermi.

July 16, 1945 The U.S. Army’s Manhattan Engineer District tests the first atomic device at Alamogordo, NM, under the code name Trinity.

August 6, 1945 The atomic bomb nicknamed Little Boy is dropped on Hiroshima, Japan; three days later another bomb, Fat Man, is dropped on Nagasaki, Japan.

October 8, 1945 Engineer Percy Spencer accidentally discovers the possibility of making a microwave oven during an experiment with electromagnetic radiation while working at Raytheon.

Pg4 pic 2Cleveland inventor Garrett Morgan developed the first safety hoods for the local fire department, in 1912.
Pg4 pic 3Milky Way, the galaxy next door, seen from NASA’s Galaxy Evolution Explorer, 2012.
Pg4 pic 4Nobel Prize winner Luis Alvarez and his son Walter, near Gubbio, Italy where they dated the extinction of dinosaurs, 1981.

February 14, 1946 John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert Jr. put the first electronic computer into operation at the University of Pennsylvania. The Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) weighs 30 tons and includes 18,000 vacuum tubes, 6,000 switches and 1,500 relays.

August 1, 1946 President Truman signs the Atomic Energy Act, transferring nuclear authority from the Army to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.

1947 Mass-produced, low-cost window air conditioners become possible as a result of innovations by engineer Henry Galson, who sets up production lines for a number of manufacturers. For the first time, many homeowners enjoy air conditioning without having to buy a new home or renovate their heating system.

October 14, 1947 U.S. Air Force pilot Capt. Charles “Chuck” Yeager pilots the first manned supersonic flight aboard the Bell X-1.

December 24, 1947 John Bardeen, Walter H. Brittain, and William B. Shockley, scientists at Bell Labs, build the first transistor that can amplify and switch electronic signals.

December 23, 1949 American physicist Willard Libby and his colleagues develop radiocarbon dating, revolutionizing the field of archeology.

1951 Isaac Asimov writes “Foundation,” a science fiction story about a group of scientists who try to preserve knowledge as civilization regresses.

Pg4 pic 5Scientists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory working on missile development for the U.S. Army, 1951.
Pg4 pic 6Dr. Nora D. Volkow, pioneered the use of brain imaging to investigate the toxic effects of drugs.
Pg4 pic 7University of Maryland Terrapin rocket program, c.1956.

October 1, 1951 Stanford University sponsors Stanford Industrial Park, a research facility containing Hewlett-Packard, General Electric and Lockheed; area becomes known as Silicon Valley.

October 4, 1951 Henrietta Lacks dies at Johns Hopkins University Hospital in Baltimore from cancer of the cervix; her living cancerous cells removed from her body and preserved in a lab later launch a medical revolution.

December 20, 1951 In Arco, ID, Experimental Breeder Reactor I produces the first electric power from nuclear energy, lighting four light bulbs.

1952 Grace Murray Hopper, a senior mathematician at the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation and a programmer for Harvard’s Mark I computer, develops the first computer compiler, a program that translated computer instructions from English into machine language.

1953 Ray Bradbury writes “Fahrenheit 451,” a dystopian tale about a futuristic society where books are banned.

1953 Scientists James Watson and Francis Crick discover the structure of DNA, the substance that contains the genetic instructions for all living things.

December 8, 1953 President Eisenhower delivers his “Atoms for Peace” speech before the United Nations, calling for greater cooperation in the development of atomic energy for peaceful purposes.

1954 Gordon Teal, a physical chemist with Texas Instruments, creates transistors from pure silicon, thereby demonstrating the first mass-produced transistor.

Pg4 pic 8First filmed boxing match takes place at the Coney Island Athletic Club (1899); Jeffries defeats Sharkey. Filming requires 200 special arc lights of 400 candle power each – strongest artificial light ever created.
Pg4 pic 9Philco Predicta Model 4654 television produced in 1959.
Pg4 pic 10Chinese student working in the food chemistry laboratory at Purdue University.

April 25, 1954 Bell Labs demonstrates the first practical silicon solar cell.

1956 The first transatlantic telephone cable, the TAT-1, is installed from Scotland to Nova Scotia, providing telephone service between North American and the United Kingdom. Additional circuitry links London to Western Europe.

June 29, 1956 President Eisenhower signs a new Federal Aid Highway Act, committing $25 billion in federal funding to link all state capitals and most cities with populations larger than 50,000.

December 8, 1956 Larry Curtiss, a junior at the University of Michigan, constructs the first glass-clad fibers and inaugurates the use of fiber-optics in medical research.

1957 FORTRAN (for FORmula TRANslation), a high-level programming language developed by IBM, becomes commercially available. Other programming languages quickly follow, including ALGOL in 1958 and COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) in 1959.

Pg4 pic 11Early road-paving machine in Tennessee.
Pg5 pic 1Valencia Community College students conduct a biology experiment, 2009.
Pg5 pic 2B-24 bombers on the assembly line at Willow Run, MI, during World War II.

December 2, 1957 The world’s first large-scale nuclear power plant begins operation in Shippinport, PA, supplying electricity to the Pittsburgh area.

December 12, 1958 Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments (and Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor independently) invents the integrated circuit.

1958 The Seagram Building, Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe’s “glass box” masterpiece opens in New York and shapes the appearance of many American cities.

September 2, 1958 The National Defense Education Act authorizes a $1 billion four-year program of federal financial assistance to strengthen science, mathematics and foreign-language instruction.

1959 Research Triangle Park is created near Raleigh, NC, by state and local government, nearby universities, and business community; it’s home today to over 130 research and development facilities, including the largest IBM location in the world, employing 11,000.

December 29. 1959 Richard Feynman, a Cal Tech physics professor, delivers a speech on nanotechnology, declaring that storing vast amounts of data in minute objects was possible.

May 9, 1960 The era of modern contraception begins when the Food and Drug Administration approves the birth control pill for distribution.

May 16, 1960 Theodore Maiman creates the first working laser (an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) at the Hughes Research Laboratories in California.

Pg5 3Baldwin locomotive at the Philadelphia Centennial Fair, 1876.
Pg5 pic4Aeroplane Graflex camera in action, c. 1918.
Pg5 pic 5U.S. Food and Drug Administration consumer safety officer working at the border crossing at Nogales, AZ, prepares tomato samples for testing by the FDA mobile lab unit, c. 2011.

1961 Robert A. Heinlein writes “Stranger in a Strange Land,” about a human who comes to earth from the planet Mars.

February 21, 1961 Otis Boykin invents the electrical resistor that is later used in computers, radios and televisions.

November 22, 1961 The U.S. Navy commissions the world’s largest ship, the U.S.S. Enterprise. It is a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier with the ability to operate at speeds up to 30 knots for distances up to 400,000 miles without refueling.

1962 The U.S. military introduces ARPANET, a network of two computers that grew to more than a million computers by 1992.

1962 Consumer activist Rachel Carson writes “Silent Spring,” documenting the dangers of pesticide use to humans and wildlife, and leading to the ban on DDT.

February 20, 1962 John Glenn pilots the Mercury Friendship 7 spacecraft in the first U.S. human orbital flight.

July 11, 1962 The first transatlantic transmission of a television signal takes place using the TELSTAR satellite.

1963 The first touch-tone telephone is introduced, with the first commercial service available in Carnegie and Greensburg, PA, for an extra charge.

 1963 Kurt Vonnegut writes “Cat’s Cradle,” about life in a post-Hiroshima world.

 January 14, 1964 James E. West and Gerhard M. Sessler, working for Bell Labs, receive a patent for their “electroacoustic transducer,” a microphone that is used today in almost all telephones, camcorders, baby monitors and hearing aids.

1965 Frank Herbert writes “Dune,” set in an imaginary desert landscape.

1965 James Russell invents the compact disc.

1965 Ralph Nader writes “Unsafe at Any Speed,” charging that the American automobile industry is neglecting consumer safety issues.

1967 A Texas Instruments team led by Jack Kilby invents the first handheld calculator.

Pg5 pic 6Smoke-shrouded Pittsburgh in early afternoon, 1940s.
Pg5 pic 7Sheet music heralded the arrival of automobiles, electric railroads, and telephones, 1900.
Pg5 pic 8The Flip-Flop or Loop-the-Loop defied the laws of gravity at Coney Island, 1895.

June 21, 1967 Stanford University professor Douglas Engelbart applies for a patent for his invention of the computer mouse as a pointing device.

1968 Philip K. Dick writes “Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?” a tale about a post-apocalyptic future. It became the basis for the 1982 film “Blade Runner.”

1968 Arthur C. Clarke writes “2001: A Space Odyssey” in conjunction with the film directed by Stanley Kubrick.

July 20, 1969 Astronaut Neil Armstrong is the first man to step on the moon during the Apollo 11 mission.

October 29, 1969 The first ARPANET message is sent from UCLA to the Stanford Research Institute; the inauguration of sharing a message digitally launches the Internet revolution.

June 30, 1970 A T&T inaugurates picture-phone service in Pittsburgh, but the idea fails to catch on.

1971 Intel introduces a “computer on a chip,” the 4004 microprocessor. Costing $1,000, it was as powerful as ENIAC, the vacuum-tube computer of the 1940s. Executing 60,000 operations per second, it changes the face of modern electronics by making it possible to include data processing in hundreds of devices.

1973 Martin Cooper, the director of research at Motorola, invents the cell phone.

1975 The Altair 8800, widely considered the first home computer, is marketed to hobbyists. Bill Gates and Paul Allen form a partnership called Microsoft and write a version of BASIC for the new computer.

Pg5 pic 9Art Reeves “Sensitester” used to examine the degree of contrast in the camera negative, 1939.
Pg5 pic 10Chuck Jennings and his stage coach vs. Air Mail, c. 1930.
Pg6 pic 1Glider in flight, 1910.

1976 Stanford University professor Martin Hellman and graduate student Whitfield Diffie invent public key cryptography, which enables users on the Internet to transmit private data securely.

1977 Citibank introduces the 24-hour automated teller machine (ATM), which revolutionizes customers’ access to their money.

1977 Piers Anthony writes the first in his series of fantasy novels, “The Xanth.”

April 16, 1977 Apple Computer, founded by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, releases the Apple II, a desktop personal computer for the mass market that features a keyboard, video monitor, mouse and RAM that can be expanded by the user.

July 3, 1977 Dr. Raymond Damadian completes the first full-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to distinguish between cancerous and noncancerous tissue.

August 1977 Orson Scott Card’s “Enders Game” first appears in the magazine Analog Science Fiction.

1978 The U.S. government launches a satellite-based navigation system for military purposes which, adapted to civilian life, becomes the GPS.

Pg6 pic 2Herman Hollerith operating the Hollerith tabulator at the U.S. Census Office, 1904.
Pg6 pic 3Patent for life-preserving coffin in doubtful cases of actual death, 1843.
Pg6 pic 4Dr. Charles Drew developed the first blood plasma bank.

March 28, 1979 The worst accident in U.S. commercial reactor history occurs at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station near Harrisburg, PA.

June 6, 1980 Nobel Award winner in Physics Luis Alvarez and his son, geologist Walter Alvarez, publish a scientific paper in Science magazine theorizing that 65 million years ago a giant asteroid had struck earth, killing the dinosaur population.

1981 Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a new disease when symptoms are noted in many young men in Los Angeles and New York.

August 12, 1981 IBM introduces the Personal Computer using the Intel 8088 microprocessor and an operating system, MS-DOS, designed by Microsoft. Fully equipped with 64 kilobytes of memory and a floppy disk drive, it costs $1,565.

Pg6 pic 5Kaiser-Frazer motor car company assembly line, Willow Run, MI, 1946.
Pg6 pic 6Mario Molina, Mexican- American Nobel Prize winner in Chemistry.
Pg6 pic 7Schematic mechanism for baseball stitching machine, 1948.

1982 “Tron” is the first motion picture to use computer-generated imagery.

1984 Apple introduces the Macintosh, a low-cost, plug-and-play personal computer. Although it doesn’t offer enough power for business applications, its easy-to-use graphic interface finds fans in education and publishing.

1985 Margaret Atwood writes, “The Handmaid’s Tale,” a dystopian novel about a totalitarian Christian theocracy that has overthrown the U.S. government.

May 17, 1988 Dr. Patricia E. Bath invents a new device for cataract surgery known as the “laserphaco.”

Pg6 pic 8Mural of Benjamin Banneker, 18th century surveyor, inventor and astronomer.
Pg6 pic 9U.S. Marine Corps, bedding down a big barrage balloon at Parris Island, SC, 1942.
Pg6 pic 10Patent issued to Steinway & Sons for wood bending page 6 machines, 1880.

1990 Tim Berners-Lee invents the Web by creating the first Web browser and Web pages, which could be accessed by the Internet.

1991 The World Wide Web becomes available to the general public.

1994 Linus Torvalds creates the Linux open source operating system.

1995 “Toy Story” is the first all computer-generated feature movie.

January 1, 1998 Larry Page files a patent for PageRank, the forerunner of Google, which revolutionized how we conduct research.

Pg6 pic 11Computer pioneer Grace Hopper examining the sequence mechanism of the Harvard Mark 1 electromechanical computing machine, 1944.
Pg6 pic 12Dr. Jerome Tobis, of Coler Hospital, NYC, mid-1950s, researching ways to improve the mobility of severely disabled children.
Pg7 pic 1Charles Adler Jr., inventor of the traffic light, tinkering with models

MILESTONES 2000s

November 10, 2001 Apple starts selling the iPod, a portable digital audio player that revolutionizes listening to music.

April 11 2003 The Human Genome Project is completed, identifying and mapping the approximately 20,000 to 25,000 genes of the human genome.

August 30, 2006 The California Senate passes the Global Warming Solutions Act, requiring a 25% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions by 2025 (or back to 1990 levels).

Pg7 pic 1Charles Adler Jr., inventor of the traffic light, tinkering with models
Pg7 pic 2Moving the Brighton Beach Hotel 100 feet from the Atlantic Ocean required six locomotives, over 10,000 ropes and nearly a ton of chains, 1888.
Pg7 pic 3George Sidney of Metro-Goldwyn- Mayer with film, cameras and lenses.

January 9, 2007 Steve Jobs of Apple introduces the iPhone at a technology conference in San Francisco, forever changing the way we communicate.

2009 Kodak announces the discontinuance of Kodachrome film.

July 3, 2012 Scientists at the multinational research center CERN, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, announce that they have discovered a new subatomic particle (the Higgs Boson) that helps explain life in the universe.

August 15, 2012 NASA safely lands a one-ton robotic rover named Curiosity on Mars, over 150 million miles away from Earth.

Pg7 pic 4Governor DeWitt Clinton celebrates the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825.
Pg7 pic 5Dr. Daniel Hale Williams performed the first successful open-heart surgery, at Provident Hospital in Chicago, 1893.
Pg7 pic 6Wrought Iron Bridge Company, Canton, OH, c.1870.

August 17, 2012 IBM creates an efficient photovoltaic cell using materials abundant on Easrth (copper, zinc and tin).

August 30, 2012 The U.S. federal government finalizes an agreement with the 13 leading automobile makers to achieve an average of 54.5 miles per gallon fuel economy by the model year 2025.

Pg7 pic 7Aeroplane ambulance, c. 1918.
Pg7 pic 8Patent for telephone issued to Alexander Graham Bell, 1876.
Pg7 pic 9Bridge on Orange & Alexandria (Virginia) Railroad, as repaired by army engineers, 1865.

September 5, 2012 The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE), an immense federal project involving 440 scientists from 32 labs around the world, reveals how the non-gene parts of DNA, previously regarded as junk DNA, contribute to human diseases.

Pg7 pic 10Frank Oppenheimer and Bob Thornton examine cyclotron at Lawrence National Laboratory.